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The period after a loss during which grief is experienced and mourning occurs. The time spent in a period of bereavement depends on many factors, including how attached the person was to the person who died, and how much time was spent anticipating the loss.
When someone is bereaved, they usually experience an intense feeling of sorrow - grief. People grieve in order to accept their deep loss and attempt to carry on with their life. Experts believe that if you do not grieve at the time of death, or shortly after, the grief may stay bottled up inside you. This can cause emotional problems or physical illness later on. Working through your grief can be a painful process, but it is often necessary to ensure your future emotional and physical well-being.
Bereavement means, literally, to be deprived by death. When someone close to you dies, you go through a process of mourning. A sense of numbness, anger and sadness can all be part of that process. Bereavement can also cause physical reactions including sleeplessness, a lack of of energy and loss of appetite.
There is no common way to grieve. Everyone is different and each person grieves in their own way. However, some stages of grief are commonly experienced by people when they are bereaved. There is no set timescale for these stages to be reached, but it can be useful to be aware of the stages and to consider that intense emotions and swift changes in mood are normal.
Feeling emotionally numb is often the first reaction to a loss, and may last for a few hours, days or longer. In some ways, this numbness can help you get through the practical arrangements and family pressures that surround the funeral, but if this phase goes on for too long, it could be a problem.
The numbness may be replaced by a deep yearning for the person who has died. You may feel agitated or angry, and find it difficult to concentrate, relax or sleep. You may also feel guilty, dwelling on arguments you had with that person or on emotions and words you wished you had expressed.
This period of strong emotion usually gives way to bouts of intense sadness, silence and withdrawal from family and friends. During this time, you may be prone to sudden outbursts of tears, set off by reminders and memories of the dead person.
Over time, the pain, sadness and depression starts to lessen. You begin to see your life in a more positive light again, although it is important to acknowledge that you may not completely overcome the feeling of loss.
The final phase of grieving is to let go of the person who has died and move on with your life. This helps sadness to clear, and your sleeping patterns and energy levels to return to normal.
Children are aware when a loved one dies and they feel that loss in much the same way as adults do. Children go through similar stages of grief, although they may progress through them more quickly. Understandably, some people try to protect children from the death and grieving process. But in fact, it is better to be honest with children about your own grief, and encourage them to talk about feelings of pain and distress in their turn.
The grieving process can take time and should not be hurried. How long it takes depends on you and your situation. In general, though, it takes most people one to two years to recover from a major bereavement.